2004), this invader has rapidly spread into the mudflats (Fig. Consequently, this competitor loses its competitive advantages in high salinity conditions (Fig. 2 and 3). Afterwards, interspecific competition among the plants determines the community patterns. More broadly, plants often suffer from harsh environmental conditions within their current and potential distribution ranges. A Case Study of Restored Coastal Wetlands in Nanhui, Shanghai. alterniflora” and “mudflat–S. 4. Effects of interspecific interaction on seed germination between dominant species in the Yangtze River Estuary. 2006a). Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaC1, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. 3), but S. alterniflora gained competitive dominance at a high salinity of 11.8‰ (Table 1; Fig. 2010). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Seven months later, we randomly selected four plots in each zone, collected all the plants in the center of the quadrat (0.25 m. © 2021 Ecological Society of America. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali. Baisakh N, RamanaRao MV, Rajasekaran K, Subudhi P, Janda J, Galbraith D, Vanier C, Pereira A. S. alterniflora had no dead ramets and, thus, had no ramet death ratio. High salt stress also induced alternative splicing in Spartina, while differentially expressed alternative splicing events associated with photosynthesis were overrepresented in Spartina but not in rice. A t‐test was used to analyze the difference of performance between the native and the invader at each salinity level. In contrast, the growth rate of the invader became higher when salinity increased; correspondingly, it gained the competitive dominance at high salinity of ca. Spartina alterniflora ( Spartina ) is the only halophyte in the salt marsh. These two theories do not distinguish between resource and non‐resource stress when predicting the nature of plant interactions along an environmental gradient. Salinity and performances of plants in 2004 and 2008 in Dongtan marsh. 1), which was related to the variation in salinity that is associated with the interaction between soil elevation and tide (Pennings and Callaway 1992, Pennings et al. Effects of salinity and interspecific competition on the performance of Spartina alterniflora in the field competition experiment. 15‰, and the low marsh has a sub‐high salinity of ca. Important, salt ... Spartina patens or Salt Marsh hay as it is sometimes called . These results highlight that the rise of major non‐resource stressor levels can substantially increase the invasibility of the native community. Moreover, the biomass of P. australis declined with increasing salinity but that of S. alterniflora did not (Fig. P. australis could survive in the highest salinity of 20‰ in this study (Fig. Remote‐sensing data were obtained in mid‐November, when P. australis was withered and yellowed and S. alterniflora was still green; sedges, including Scirpus triqueter, Scirpus mariqueter and Carex scabrifolia, were relatively short, yellowed and fallen over. 2013). The competitor‐stress tolerate‐ruderal theory predicts that the gradients in physical stress and resource availability will show similar patterns of segregation in stress tolerators and excellent competitors (Grime 1977, Grace 1991). 1 and 7). These findings indicate that the differences of tolerance to non‐resource stress between new arrivals and natives can profoundly influence the trajectory of community development by influencing the outcomes of interspecific competition, which supports the integrated community theory suggesting that physiological tolerance and competitive ability of new arrivals are the important influences on community patterns (Christopher et al. The impact of invasive plants that displace native plants is readily apparent and result in adverse effects on the invaded habitats (Burghardt et al. Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), a gramineous halophyte, can survive in as high as two fold strength of seawater (Niranjan Baisakh and Parami 2006) and is believed owning all possible mechanisms of salt tolerance, existence of salt glands, decrease in osmotic potential, biosynthesis of compatible solutes, ion exclu- 2006). Chance biogeographical events have been enhanced by anthropogenic transport and a decrease in the effects of natural biogeographical barriers as a result of artificial passages created during globalisation (Wang et al. The performance of S. alterniflora transplanted in the native communities where the salinities were higher than 7.8‰ improved rapidly over time, but S. alterniflora transplanted at the salinity of 4.9‰ did not significantly change (Table 4; Fig. Meanwhile, Phragmites has competitively displaced native Spartina in the marshes along the east Pacific coast (Silliman and Bertness 2004, Vasquez et al. USA.gov. Relative importance of environmental variables for the distribution of the invasive marsh species Spartina alterniflora across different spatial scales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. tic) variation in salt tolerance has been reported in S. alterniflora (Nestler 1977) and Spartina foliosa (Cain and Harvey 1983). There were two points in the monoculture community of P. australis, two points in the monoculture community of S. alterniflora, and two points in the mixture community of S. triqueter, S. mariqueter and C. scabrifolia. 3) (Vasquez et al. 2010, Redondo‐Go'mez et al. australis” to “mudflat–S. Does salt stress affect the interspecific interaction between regionally dominant Suaeda salsa and Scirpus planiculumis?. The tide in Dongtan marsh is low and infrequent (half‐immersion type), and such low‐intensity inundation stress does not inhibit the growth of P. australis and S. alterniflora or change the outcome of their competition (Maricle and Lee 2002, Wang et al. 2 and 3) (Vasquez et al. 2009, Tang et al. 6.5 mm/year at the mouth of the Yangtze River, which is a rate much higher than the annual mean of 1.4 mm/year (Wang et al. F, M and AC) of P. australis, which are often attributed to the ecophysiological features of this plant. Eight quadrats were chosen to transplant S. alterniflora in mid‐April, and one quadrat was planted with 36 ramets of S. alterniflora spaced at 0.4‐m intervals. In addition, Chen et al. 8‰ (Fig. In this study, the invasive S. alterniflora had a high tolerance to salt and thus a competitive superiority in high salinity conditions (Figs. | 2). Bertness MD, Shumway SW, 1992. A total of 30 pots were provided for the experiment: 15 pots of monoculture P. australis with 2 ramets in each pot and 15 pots of monoculture S. alterniflora with 2 ramets in each pot. Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora are wide-spread dominant grasses of fresh, brackish, and salt marsh plant communities, respectively. Furthermore, the transpiration and photosynthesis of P. australis is very sensitive to salt stress (Jiang et al. 6). 2011, Zhou et al. Evaluation of alternative oil spill cleanup techniques in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Changes in multiple environmental factors additively enhance the dominance of an exotic plant with a novel trade‐off pattern. 2001, Pennings et al. Identification and expression analyses of the NAC transcription factor family in Spartina alterniflora. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. Dramatically, they can reciprocally invade. For example, Dongtan salt marsh, located in the Yangtze River estuary, Chongming Island, Shanghai, China (31°250′ ∼ 31°380′ N; 121°500′ ∼ 122°050′ E), has two formations that include native Phragmites australis (Cav.) With increasing elevation, although the input of salt from tidal water gradually reduces, the evaporation of soil water can increase soil salinity. At a salinity of 10 ‰, the inflorescence dry biomass of P. australis was ca. Learn more. Because it is not a salt stress tolerator, P. australis loses the competitive advantage in high salinity conditions (Figs. One quantitative measure of salt tolerance ... Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) Tetragonia tetragonoides (warrigal greens, kōkihi, sea spinach) Dunaliella (a green alga) sesuvium portulacastrum (sea purslane) As biofuel. 2005). Additionally, the South‐to‐North Water Transfer and Three‐Gorge engineering projects in China have caused decreases in the freshwater flow into the estuaries and an increase of seawater intrusion. Trin and invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel (Li et al. Spartina plants have a salt gland and thus can excrete excess salt on the leaf face (Levering and Thomson 1971, Wang et al. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Naþ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. Enhanced salt stress tolerance of rice plants expressing a vacuolar H+ -ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) gene from the halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora Löisel. Standard errors of 4 replicate plots are shown. Thus, moving from the dike to the seaward area of Dongtan salt marsh, the high marsh closest to the dike has the lowest salinity of ca. 2006a, Medeiros et al. Consequently, after invasive S. alterniflora colonisation, the vegetation pattern of Dongtan marsh gradually changed from “mudflat–sedge–P. 5‰, the middle marsh has the highest salinity of ca. 3 and 5), the vegetation pattern of many Spartina spp. Moreover, in the same transect, salinity did not change significantly over time (North transect: F = 0.143, p = 0.708; South transect, F = 0.012, p = 0.915; one‐way repeated‐measures ANOVA). L’étude de la progression de la Spartine (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) en rade de Brest entre 1952 et 2004 a été réalisée à partir d’une analyse diachronique par photo-interprétation et de mesures de terrain au DGPS. Once colonized, S. alterniflora has a guerrilla strategy by which it can avoid stresses, including competition and infertility in microhabitats, and thus can expand rapidly (Vasquez et al. Transcriptome analysis showed that high salt stress induced the expression of carbohydrate metabolism, especially cell-wall biosynthesis-related genes in Spartina, and repressed its expression in rice. 2006a, b, Engloner 2009). In this case study, the results obtained by the pot and field experiments demonstrate that (1) excellent competitors and non‐resource stress tolerators can share preferences for their most preferred habitat type, and their interspecific competition can occur in both favorable and unfavorable non‐resource conditions; (2) at any level of a non‐resource stress, if a plant can grow rapidly, it has a competitive advantage and the non‐resource stress can change plant growth rate and thus affect its competitiveness; and therefore (3) a new arrival with a high tolerance to major non‐resource stress factors can outcompete the natives and consequently change vegetation pattern in physiologically stressful ecosystems. An actin‐depolymerizing factor from the halophyte smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2), is superior to its rice homolog (OsADF2) in conferring drought and salt tolerance when constitutively overexpressed in rice Sonali Sengupta. Controlled S. alterniflora should not be allowed to recover. 2020 Mar 9;251(4):76. doi: 10.1007/s00425-020-03366-6. On the other hand, our previous study has shown that the inundation time in the low, middle and high tidal zones of Dongtan marsh are ca. The ramets of one plant was surrounded by those of another plant species, with the exception of the ramets in the mixture quadrat edge row. 2006). 2020 Feb 20;42(2):194-211. doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.19-250. 3). Moreover, the native had a high growth rate and therefore exhibited a competitive dominance over the invader at low salinity of ca. Wani SH, Kumar V, Khare T, Guddimalli R, Parveda M, Solymosi K, Suprasanna P, Kavi Kishor PB. 7). We first measured the soil pore water salinity. Engineering salinity tolerance in plants: progress and prospects. The remaining eight quadrats served as the control. The SaVHAc1-expressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjustments in early stage and preparatory physiological responses. 3). 2006b, He et al. For example, the osmotic potential of P. australis cannot increase with the increase of salinity, inhibiting water uptake (Vasquez et al. Learn about our remote access options, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi′an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi′an 710049 China, Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, 5 Jinhua South Road, Xi′an 710048 China, Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 China, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, 508 Qinzhou Road, Shanghai 200233 China, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 China. 2010, Corbin and D'Antonio 2011). SMOOTH CORDGRASS . We thank two anonymous reviewers and the editor Adam Langley for important comments on the manuscript. Inundation and salinity are two major non‐resource conditions in salt marshes (Emery et al. forms large mats of foliage and is important as a buffer against shore line erosion and flooding. 40% (Fig. 2006a, Liu et al. 2004). Native and non-native halophytes resiliency against sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion. Moreover, the invader had no dead ramet. In contrast, the total dry biomass and inflorescence dry biomass of S. alterniflora did not substantially change along the salinity gradient (Fig. 3). 2 and 3). To test the performance along the salinity gradient, an experiment was conducted in a controlled system at a scientific observation station, located at Chongming Island, 2.5 km west of Dongtan marsh. S. alterniflora has become the largest plant community as of 2004 (Fig. 2009). Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. 1, 6 and 7). It grows in a wide range of salinities, from about 5 psu to marine (32 psu), and has been described as the "single most important marsh plant species in the estuary" of Chesapeake Bay. 2). 2006). Water salinity was adjusted with unpurified connate sea salt to 0‰, 5‰, 10‰, 15‰ and 20‰. 2013). The physiological role of a vacuolar ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. Tolerance between non-resource stress and an invader determines competition intensity and importance in an invaded estuary. Dynamics of the vegetation pattern in Dongtan marsh. 3 and 4); in contrast, the competitive inhibition of S. alterniflora by P. australis insignificantly increased with the decrease of salinity (Table 3; Figs. Hence, even if controlled projects are practiced, S. alterniflora may recover. We measured the total number of ramets as well as the number of dead ramets of P. australis and S. alterniflora in each pot. Vasquez et al. In mid‐April, the collected ramets were planted. Introduction double the strength of sea water . On the other hand, the habitat partitioning theory predicts that interspecific competition often occurs in a favorable habitat for both competitors (Rosenzweig 1991, Wisheu 1998). Standard errors of 4 replicate plots are shown. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (numbers 31100301 and 31170450), Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (11ZR1430700), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (numbers Xjj2011065 and 2012jdhz43). (2004) have reported that S. alterniflora has an obvious competitive advantage over other natives such as S. mariqueter in wide salinity conditions. 2020 Sep 17;11:571025. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.571025. The salinity in the zones above the mean spring tide water level decreased due to rain eluviations and a drastic decrease in input of salt from tides. ESA Headquarters1990 M Street, NWSuite 700 2006b). In mudflats, the annual average horizontal expansion rate of S. alterniflora has been documented to be 74.3 ± 8.6 cm (Chen et al. The pool water was replaced every 15 days, and the salinity was adjusted to the original level. Eight plots were established in each zone, and the plots were spaced 5.0 m apart. 3 and 5), the field transplant experiment showed that this invader displayed good performance and a high influence (NAI) on native P. australis in high salinity zones (Fig. 2005, Vasquez et al. A repeated ANOVA was used to test the difference of salinity between the year of 2004 and 2008 in the South transect; the same analysis was performed for the North transect. Data shown are the mean interspecific relative neighbor effects (RNE) in the aboveground dry biomass in the treatment of salinity level in two years. Long Tang and Yang Gao contributed equally to this work. This study investigated how salt stress mediates competition between native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora and thus changes plant communities in Dongtan, a Chinese coast salt marsh. Unlike most other marsh plants, the salt-tolerance of cordgrass is directly ... Steve K.; Webb, James W. 1988. However, the molecular basis of its high salt tolerance remains elusive. The shoreline elevation is 100 cm. An actin-depolymerizing factor from the halophyte smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2), is superior to its rice homolog (OsADF2) in conferring drought and salt tolerance when constitutively overexpressed in rice. In S. alterniflora none of the plant morphological variables was significantly correlated with salt tolerance, whereas leaf rolling at 35 per mil accounted for 38% of the variation in lethal salinity level among genotypes. In each plot, one quadrat was planted with 16 ramets of P. australis spaced at 0.3‐m intervals, the second quadrat was planted with 16 ramets of S. alterniflora spaced at 0.3‐m intervals, and the third quadrat was planted with 16 ramets of P. australis and 16 ramets of S. alterniflora spaced 0.15 m apart. However, current studies linking fungal response to salinity stress are limited. The surveys were conducted in mid‐October of 2004 and 2008. Effects of salinity and interspecific competition on the performance of Phragmites australis in the field competition experiment. Changes in the vegetation area and distribution area of the plants in Dongtan marsh since 1997. Here, S. alterniflora rapidly changed the community structure of P. australis in the high salinity zones (Figs. In this study, we used PacBio full-length single molecule long-read sequencing and RNA-seq to elucidate the transcriptome dynamics of high salt tolerance in Spartina by salt-gradient experiments (0, 350, 500 and 800 mM NaCl). 1). GLMs were used to test the difference of inflorescence dry biomass among salinity groups; a one‐way ANOVA was used to test the effects of salinity on the other indices of two plants; Tukey's test was used as a post hoc comparison. 2006, Engloner 2009). It is important to note that there is a high possibility of colonisation by S. alterniflora. Similarly, there were four rows in each mixture quadrat and eight ramets in each row. Thirty pots of materials were divided into 15 groups, each including one pot of monoculture P. australis and one pot of monoculture S. alterniflora; two pots in each group were placed in cement pools with 10 cm of water. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. 7). 2006a, b, Wang et al. Therefore, S. alterniflora suffers relatively little damage from high salinity. 2011). Thus, S. alterniflora could normally grow and sexually reproduce in the salinity of 0–20‰ (Fig. The aboveground dry biomass, density and number of flowering ramet of natives including P. australis and S. mariqueter were negatively correlated with soil pore water salinity in the field, but the growth and sexual reproduction of invasive S. alterniflora were not correlated with salinity (Table 5; Fig. After S. alterniflora colonized the north zone of Dongtan marsh, this invader not only spread into mudflats without the natives but also displaced native plants in the high salinity zones (Figs. 2006, Wang et al. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between S. alterniflora and P. australis (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). 2). Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) is a Louisiana native monocot halophyte that can withstand salinity up to double the strength of sea water. Six months later, we randomly selected four treated quadrats and four control quadrats and collected the plants in the center (1 m2) of the planting zone and the control. Does Soil Pore Water Salinity or Elevation Influence Vegetation Spatial Patterns along Coasts? Thus, the strong interspecific competition substantially inhibited the performance of two plants (Tables 2 and 3; Figs. Salt marshes often have a strong gradient of non‐resource stress, such as salinity and inundation, and a small number of plant species distributed in distinct zones. 2 and 5) (Chen et al. To ensure the accuracy of the calculation, stratified random sampling based on an error matrix was applied to the categorized remote‐sensing results; all of the categorized images and corrected, classified results were assessed, and the accuracy of classified results was shown to be above 85%. The planted P. australis failed to flower in the first year, and a two‐way ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of salinity and interspecific interactions on the flower ratio of this native in the second year, with Tukey's test used as the post hoc comparison (the effect of salinity, F = 63.90, p = 0.005; the effect of competition, F = 5.03, p = 0.01; the interaction, F = 0.94, p > 0.05; all df = 1). 1). Because the image is small, the polynomial method was used for all correction models, followed by the acquisition of optimal bands through PCA analysis and false‐color processing (used for artificial interpretation). Dongtan marsh, a coastal wetland, is influenced by many factors, such as the tide, evaporation, rainfall and topography (Li et al. 2.5 m wide. australis” zonation in the southern zone (Fig. Spartina alterniflora . may be accelerated in the marshes of eastern China in the future. Because some non‐resource stresses have substantial positive effects on native community invasibility, the practices that change the level of non‐resource stress and create favorable conditions for invasive species should be stopped. 4 and 5). 2006a, b). 1). Planta. 2 and 3) (Vasquez et al. After one hour, soil pore water was extracted from the holes and salinity was measured with a conductivity meter (Metter Toledo Company, Switzerland). S. alterniflora soil could impede A. germinans establishment in salt marsh communities. Thus, an important role of plant ecologists is to illustrate the influences of new arrivals on community patterns along environmental gradients to explain plant distribution. experiments. Sengupta S, Mangu V, Sanchez L, Bedre R, Joshi R, Rajasekaran K, Baisakh N. Plant Biotechnol J. As a result, the invader colonising the native communities in high salinity zones performed better and could displace the natives over time. 40–80 h/15 d, 40 h/15 d and 15 h/15 d, respectively (Tang et al. 2) (Vasquez et al. (2005) have shown that the increase of salinity can strongly inhibit the growth of three haplotypes (viz. It is described as intolerant of shade. 7). In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length single-molecule long-read sequencing and RNA-seq to elucidate the transcriptome dynamics of high salt tolerance in Spartina by salt gradient experiments. Many studies have shown that P. australis and S. alterniflora have a high tolerance to the anoxia caused by inundation (Maricle and Lee 2002, Wang et al. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 2006b). The vegetation pattern in Dongtan marsh in 1997, when S. alterniflora had not colonized, included two formations, P. australis and sedges including S. mariqueter, S. triqueter and C. scabrifolia (Fig. The differences of relative neighbor effect (RNE) showed that P. australis exhibited a competitive dominance over S. alterniflora at a low salinity of 7.03‰ (Table 1; Fig. 2006). (2006b) have shown that the interspecific competition between P. australis and S. alterniflora can arise in a very wide salinity range of 0–30‰.
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