W hen Should we Spay and Castrate? Redrawn from Matignon (17 ). Androgen action is required for the development of the prostate gland during embryogenesis (47), and the prostate does not develop in men with mutations that profoundly impair the function of the androgen receptor (48) or of steroid 5α-reductase-2 (49). Castration can occur by accident (e.g. Will just one testicle tamper with sex life and fatherhood? Redrawn from Millant (31 ). First, the so-called castrati singers were, in fact, a heterogeneous group consisting of women who posed as castrated men, men with hypogonadism and/or cryptorchidism, men with intact testes who probably sang as counter tenors or falsetto, and a few singers who either had their testes removed or crushed (51). c, A urethral plug used to prevent incontinence in the Ottoman Court eunuchs (5 cm long). The testicles produce androgens, so removing them causes hormone levels to plummet. A dog who is allowed to breed must first be tested and cleared of certain health problems known to be hereditary. The physicians to the harem inspected the eunuchs on arrival to be certain that both penis and testes had been removed and reexamined them every few years to be certain that nothing was amiss (7). 2a), grasped the scrotum and penis with his left hand, and asked the candidate or his parents to consent to the procedure. This has been corroborated by many studies. Alternatively, osteomalacia due to vitamin D deficiency was common in Northern China in the early years of this century (44), and vitamin D deficiency might have contributed to osteopenia in the Chinese eunuchs (and possibly in the Skoptzy). Neutering, from the Latin neuter ('of neither sex'), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. In 1960 Wu and Gu (25, 26) performed careful physical examinations, including palpation of the prostate in 26 eunuchs (5 of whom had been castrated after the revolution of 1911) who lived in Beijing. On the fourth day, the dressing and plug were removed, and if the subject was able to urinate the operation was considered a success. The risk rate for neutered dogs developing cancer is higher than for intact males developing cancer. Veroffentlichungen Kreigs Konstitutionspathol. With regard to castration, I believe that males should not be castrated until they have been cocking their leg for at least one month, and should be at least 12 to 36 months of age (depending on size and breed). [According to Wagenseil, other castration techniques were sometimes used, each involving the removal of all the external genitalia (19).]. This couple survived until the Cultural Revolution of 1966–76, the wife dying of malnutrition, and the husband disappearing after being deported to the countryside (23).]. Wilson JD, Harrod MJ, Goldstein JL, Hemsell DL, MacDonald PC. The procedure by which the Chinese court eunuchs were castrated in the late 19th century during the Qing dynasty was described in some detail by Stent in 1878 (15), and subsequent descriptions of the practice, including those by Korasow (16), Matignon (17), and Wong and Wu (18), appear to be paraphrases of Stent (15). The surgeon stood between the legs armed with a curved knife (Fig. These castrated boys are often called eunuchs or castrati. The amputated penis, testes, and scrotum, termed “the precious” or“ the treasures,” were preserved in alcohol and either stored by the knifer or kept by the subject (15, 16). Go Ask Alice! More and more vets and dog trainers are recommending that male dogs, regardless of whether a behaviour or health related problem actually exists, are castrated at around 6 months of age. These observations appear to have been made before it was recognized that kyphosis is a manifestation of severe osteoporosis in women (40). The practice of employing eunuchs as court functionaries in China and in other oriental countries goes back into prehistory (14). In contrast to China, ownership of eunuchs in Turkey was not limited to the royal palaces; any citizen who could afford the purchase price was entitled. Explains what mental health problems are, what may cause them, and the many different kinds of help, treatment and support that are available. One question of interest concerning castration in men cannot be resolved from the available data, namely the issue as to whether the life span of men is shorter than that of women because of the presence of testes or the absence of ovaries (and menstruation) (5). Hearing and Vision Loss Tissue degeneration in the eyes and ears can cause varying degrees of deafness … A string was placed in the eye to prevent it from slipping into the bladder. In antiquity the procedure was performed for several reasons, including as punishment for prisoners of war (2), and by the time of Aristotle in the fourth century BC the physiological consequences of male castration were understood with remarkable exactitude (3). In … In 400 AD in Constantinopole, the empress Aelia Eudoxia had a eunuch choir-master, Brison (sidenote: eunuchs were castrated after The overall number of people reporting mental health problems has been going up in recent years. The surgical removal of the testes is sometimes called castration, but its more formally known as orchiectomy. Women were not castrated, but were subjected to mutilation of the breasts and external genitalia. In 1907 Tandler and Grosz examined 5 Skoptzy men in Bucharest whose average age was 30 yr and who had been castrated between ages 5–21 yr (12). Koch obtained x-rays of the skull in 10 Skoptzy men and reported that the pituitary glands were normal in size in 3, enlarged in 4, and“ particularly” enlarged in 3 (13). It reached its greatest prominence in 17th- and 1 The castrato voice was introduced in the 16th century, when women were banned from church choirs and the stage. The eunuchs squatted to urinate, and both urethral strictures and incontinence must have been common, because some eunuchs carried silver quills for self-catheterization, presumably because of strictures (7), and others used a removable plug (Fig. Most health professionals in the UK agree on a similar set of clinical diagnoses and treatments for mental health problems. Evidence for androgen resistance and variable clinical manifestations in a family with the Reifenstein syndrome. Scarsdale: New York Academy of Medicine Library (59 volumes). The amount of people with common mental health problems went up by 20% between 1993 to 2014, in both men and women . The reason for the apparent discrepancy between the findings in the Chinese eunuchs and those in the Skoptzy and the Ottoman eunuchs is not clear, but it is of interest that the average age at which castration was performed was older in the Chinese group (average age at castration, 18 yr; less than a fourth had been castrated before age 14 yr). My penile girth during erection has decreased by 2 cm and my flaccid length is now only 4 cm, compared to 9 cm before the procedure. Muscle mass, physical strength, and body hair are all typically reduced, and eunuchs are usually beardless. Furthermore, it has been known since the 19th century that prostatic hyperplasia does not develop in prepubertal castrates and that castration causes regression of the hyperplastic prostate (50). In the latter group, there was also erosion of the dorsum sellae of the pituitary (“sattellehne”). Reprinted from Matignon (17 ). Millant R. 1908 Les eunuques: a travers les ages. Those who had families and children before castration rejoined their families, and others married and adopted children. Translations from German were made by one of the authors (C.R. Subsequently, during the German occupation of Romania in the First World War Walter Koch studied 13 Skoptzy men, all between 50 and 94 yr of age (averaging 64 yr), who had been castrated for an average of 46 yr (13). 1877 Chinese eunuchs. On occasion, the castration was punitive, as in prisoners of war, but most were performed voluntarily in adults who, because of poverty or laziness, underwent castration to gain employment (usually as young adults, but sometimes in men after having born children) or in children under compulsion who were sold by their parents for the purpose of castration (15). Familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism type 1. 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